linux防火墙使用以及配置命令(Centos 7 firewall和Centos 6 iptables)

Centos 7 firewall :

1、firewalld的基本使用

启动: systemctl start firewalld

关闭: systemctl stop firewalld

查看状态: systemctl status firewalld

开机禁用 : systemctl disable firewalld

开机启用 : systemctl enable firewalld

2.systemctl是CentOS7的服务管理工具中主要的工具,它融合之前service和chkconfig的功能于一体。

启动一个服务:systemctl start firewalld.service

关闭一个服务:systemctl stop firewalld.service

重启一个服务:systemctl restart firewalld.service

显示一个服务的状态:systemctl status firewalld.service

在开机时启用一个服务:systemctl enable firewalld.service

在开机时禁用一个服务:systemctl disable firewalld.service

查看服务是否开机启动:systemctl is-enabled firewalld.service

查看已启动的服务列表:systemctl list-unit-files|grep enabled

查看启动失败的服务列表:systemctl –failed

3.配置firewalld-cmd

查看版本: firewall-cmd –version

查看帮助: firewall-cmd –help

显示状态: firewall-cmd –state

查看所有打开的端口: firewall-cmd –zone=public –list-ports

更新防火墙规则: firewall-cmd –reload

查看区域信息: firewall-cmd –get-active-zones

查看指定接口所属区域: firewall-cmd –get-zone-of-interface=eth0

拒绝所有包:firewall-cmd –panic-on

取消拒绝状态: firewall-cmd –panic-off

查看是否拒绝: firewall-cmd –query-panic

那怎么开启一个端口呢

添加

firewall-cmd –zone=public –add-port=80/tcp –permanent (–permanent永久生效,没有此参数重启后失效)

重新载入

firewall-cmd –reload

查看

firewall-cmd –zone= public –query-port=80/tcp

删除

firewall-cmd –zone= public –remove-port=80/tcp –permanent

调整默认策略(默认拒绝所有访问,改成允许所有访问):

firewall-cmd –permanent –zone=public –set-target=ACCEPT

firewall-cmd –reload

对某个IP开放多个端口:

firewall-cmd –permanent –add-rich-rule=”rule family=”ipv4″ source address=”10.159.60.29″ port protocol=”tcp” port=”1:65535″ accept”

firewall-cmd –reload

Centos 6 iptables:

1、iptables的基本使用

启动: service iptables start

关闭: service iptables stop

查看状态: service iptables status

开机禁用 : chkconfig iptables off

开机启用 : chkconfig iptables on

2、开放指定的端口

-A和-I参数分别为添加到规则末尾和规则最前面。

允许本地回环接口(即运行本机访问本机)

iptables -A INPUT -i lo -j ACCEPT

允许已建立的或相关连的通行

iptables -A INPUT -m state –state ESTABLISHED,RELATED -j ACCEPT

允许所有本机向外的访问iptables -P INPUT ACCEPT

iptables -A OUTPUT -j ACCEPT

允许访问22端口

iptables -A INPUT -p tcp –dport 22 -j ACCEPTiptables -A INPUT -p tcp -s 10.159.1.0/24 –dport 22 -j ACCEPT 注:-s后可以跟IP段或指定IP地址

允许访问80端口

iptables -A INPUT -p tcp –dport 80 -j ACCEPT

允许FTP服务的21和20端口

iptables -A INPUT -p tcp –dport 21 -j ACCEPT

iptables -A INPUT -p tcp –dport 20 -j ACCEPT

如果有其他端口的话,规则也类似,稍微修改上述语句就行

允许ping

iptables -A INPUT -p icmp -m icmp –icmp-type 8 -j ACCEPT

禁止其他未允许的规则访问

iptables -A INPUT -j REJECT #(注意:如果22端口未加入允许规则,SSH链接会直接断开。)

iptables -A FORWARD -j REJECT

3、屏蔽IP

如果只是想屏蔽IP的话 “3、开放指定的端口” 可以直接跳过。

屏蔽单个IP的命令是

iptables -I INPUT -s 123.45.6.7 -j DROP

封整个段即从123.0.0.1到123.255.255.254的命令

iptables -I INPUT -s 123.0.0.0/8 -j DROP

封IP段即从123.45.0.1到123.45.255.254的命令

iptables -I INPUT -s 124.45.0.0/16 -j DROP

封IP段即从123.45.6.1到123.45.6.254的命令是

iptables -I INPUT -s 123.45.6.0/24 -j DROP

4、查看已添加的iptables的规则

iptables -L -n

N:只显示IP地址和端口号,不将IP解析为域名

删除已添加的iptables的规则

将所有iptables以序号标记显示,执行:

iptables -L -n --line-numbers

比如要删除INPUT里序号为8的规则,执行:

iptables -D INPUT 8

5、也可以直接编辑配置文件,添加iptables防火墙规则:

iptables的配置文件为/ etc / sysconfig / iptables

编辑配置文件:

vi /etc/sysconfig/iptables

文件中的配置规则与通过的iptables命令配置,语法相似:

如,通过iptables的命令配置,允许访问80端口:

iptables -A INPUT -p tcp --dport 80 -j ACCEPT

那么,在文件中配置,只需要去掉句首的iptables,添加如下内容:

-A INPUT -p tcp --dport 80 -j ACCEPT

保存退出。

有两种方式添加规则

iptables -A 和iptables -I

iptables -A 添加的规则是添加在最后面。如针对INPUT链增加一条规则,接收从eth0口进入且源地址为192.168.0.0/16网段发往本机的数据。

[root@localhost ~]# iptables -A INPUT -i eth0 -s 192.168.0.0/16 -j ACCEPT

iptables -I 添加的规则默认添加至第一条。

如果要指定插入规则的位置,则使用iptables -I 时指定位置序号即可。

删除规则

如果删除指定则,使用iptables -D命令,命令后可接序号。效果请对比上图。

或iptables -D 接详细定义;

如果想把所有规则都清除掉,可使用iptables -F。

备份iptabes rules

使用iptables-save命令,如:

[root@localhost ~]# iptables-save > /etc/sysconfig/iptables.save

恢复iptables rules

使用iptables命令,如:

[root@localhost ~]# iptables-restore < /etc/sysconfig/iptables.save

iptables 配置保存

以上做的配置修改,在设备重启后,配置将丢失。可使用service iptables save进行保存。

[root@localhost ~]# service iptables save

重启iptables的服务使其生效:

service iptables save 添加规则后保存重启生效。

service iptables restart

关于更多的iptables的使用方法可以执行:

iptables --help

文章来源:www.rakbuluo.com/p90

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